A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental, social and emotional functioning. Polysomnography and actigraphy are tests commonly ordered for some sleep disorders.
Sleep disorders are broadly classified into dyssomnias, parasomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders involving the timing of sleep, and other disorders including ones caused by medical or psychological conditions. The most common sleep disorder is insomnia. Others are sleep apnea, narcolepsy and hypersomnia (excessive sleepiness at inappropriate times), sleeping sickness (disruption of sleep cycle due to infection), sleepwalking, and night terrors. Management of sleep disturbances that are secondary to mental, medical, or substance abuse disorders should focus on the underlying conditions.
Sleep study/ polysomnography is the main tool to study sleep apnea or sleep disorder
- Restless legs syndromeA condition characterised by a nearly irresistible urge to move the legs, typically in the evenings.
- Jet lagA sleep disorder that can affect those who travel quickly across multiple time zones.
- NarcolepsyA chronic sleep disorder that causes overwhelming daytime drowsiness.
- SleepwalkingThe act of getting up and walking around while asleep.
- Obstructive sleep apneaIntermittent airflow blockage during sleep.
- InsomniaPersistent problems falling and staying asleep.