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HYPERTENSION

Hypertension also known as high blood pressure is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.[10] High blood pressure typically does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.

Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to complications including:
  • Heart attack or stroke. …
  • Aneurysm. …
  • Heart failure. …
  • Weakened and narrowed blood vessels in your kidneys. …
  • Thickened, narrowed or torn blood vessels in the eyes. …
  • Metabolic syndrome. …
  • Trouble with memory or understanding. …
  • Dementia.

Blood pressure measurements fall into four general categories:

  • Normal blood pressure. Your blood pressure is normal if it’s below 120/80 mm Hg.
  • Elevated blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure is a systolic pressure ranging from 120 to 129 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure below 80 mm Hg. Elevated blood pressure tends to get worse over time unless steps are taken to control blood pressure.
  • Stage 1 hypertension. Stage 1 hypertension is a systolic pressure ranging from 130 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure ranging from 80 to 89 mm Hg.
  • Stage 2 hypertension. More severe hypertension, stage 2 hypertension is a systolic pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or a diastolic pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher.

Treatment of hypertension

There are several types of drugs used to treat high blood pressure, including:
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
  • Diuretics.
  • Beta-blockers.
  • Calcium channel blockers.
  • Alpha-blockers.
  • Alpha-agonists.
  • Renin inhibitors.
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